The main reason for this requirement is to give the cord blood bank enough time to complete the enrollment process. For the safety of any person who might receive the cord blood donation, the mother must pass a health history screening. And for ethical reasons, the mother must give informed consent.
According to Cord Blood Registry, cord blood is defined as “the blood that remains in your baby’s umbilical cord after the cord has been cut, is a rich source of unique stem cells that can be used in medical treatments.” Cord blood has been shown to help treat over 80 diseases, such as leukemia, other cancers, and blood disorders. This cord blood, which can be safely removed from your newborn’s already-cut umbilical cord, can be privately stored for the purpose of possible use in the future for your child or family member. (It can also be donated to a public bank, but this is not widely available)
We offer standard and premium cord blood processing options. Our standard service has been used in thousands of successful transplants since 1988 and begins at $1600. For $350 more, our premium service uses a superior new processing method that greatly enhances parents’ return on investment. (Please visit our processing technology page to learn about our cord blood processing methods.) For an additional $950, you can also store your baby’s cord tissue, which has the potential to help heal the body in different ways than cord blood.
There are over 130 public cord blood banks in 35 countries. They are regulated by Governments and adhere to internationally agreed standards regarding safety, sample quality and ethical issues. In the UK, several NHS facilities within the National Blood Service harvest and store altruistically donated umbilical cord blood. Trained staff, working separately from those providing care to the mother and newborn child, collect the cord blood. The mother may consent to donate the blood for research and/or clinical use and the cord blood bank will make the blood available for use as appropriate.
For families who wish to donate cord blood to a public bank, the biggest hurdle may be finding a nearby hospital that collects cord blood for donation. Most public banks only work with select hospitals in their community. In the U.S., there are only about 200 hospitals that collect cord blood donations. Find out if there is a donation hospital near you.
The Doneses were shocked, however, when doctors told them that Anthony’s cord blood couldn’t be used because the cells contained the same genetic defect that caused his condition. “The materials provided by the bank said this was Anthony’s life insurance and could save him if he needed it. They never mentioned that the cells could be diseased. We felt duped,” Tracey says. The Long Island, New York, couple has since filed a lawsuit against the bank alleging false advertising and consumer fraud.
In addition to the use of cord blood stem cells for transplantation, cord blood stem cells are currently being investigated for use in stem cell therapy. Cord blood stem cells are multipotent and are believed to have greater plasticity (the ability to form into different stem cell types) than adult hematopoietic stem cells found in bone marrow. HSCs are being investigated for use in autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythermatosis (SLE) in order to reprogram or reconstitute the immune system. Additionally, research is being conducted on differentiating HSCs into other tissue types such as skeletal and cardiac muscle, liver cells (hepatocytes), and neurons. HSCs are currently being used in gene therapy, due to their self-renewing properties, as a means of delivering genes to repair damaged cells. HSCs are the only cells currently being used in this manner in clinical gene therapy trials.
But considering the average cost of a new car or top-of-the-line stroller these days, many expectant parents feel it’s not an unreasonable price to pay to give their child the best chance in life. “Ultimately, my conscience wouldn’t let me not do it,” says Merilee Kern, of San Diego. “We could afford it, and the blood could someday save my daughter.”
Clinical Trials More likely to be used in clinical trials to potentially treat strokes, heart attacks, diabetes, cerebral palsy, autism and a range of other serious medical conditions Less likely to be available to the donor or family members for use in clinical trials More likely to be used in clinical trials for range of other serious medical conditions Less likely to be available for use in clinical trials
Cord blood does not have to be as closely matched as bone marrow or peripheral blood transplants. Bone marrow transplants typically require a 6/6 HLA match. While a closely matched cord blood transplant is preferable, cord blood has been transplanted successfully with as few as 3/6 matches. For patients with uncommon tissue types, cord blood may be an option if a suitable adult donor cannot be found. Since cord blood is cryogenically preserved and stored, it is more readily available than bone marrow or peripheral blood from an unrelated donor, allowing transplants to take place within a shorter period of time. It takes approximately two weeks to locate, transfer, and thaw a preserved cord blood unit. Finding a suitable bone marrow donor typically takes at least two months.
Families have the additional option of storing a section of the umbilical cord, which is rich in unique and powerful stem cells that may help repair and heal the body in different ways than stem cells derived from cord blood.
Cord blood banking is not always cheap. It’s completely free to donate blood to a public cord blood bank, but private banks charge $1,400 to $2,300 for collecting, testing, and registering, plus an annual $95 to $125 storing fee.
And as Victor and Tracey Dones learned, a child’s own cord blood can’t always be used to treat him, even when he’s young. “Childhood leukemia is one of the diseases private banks like to play up, but most kids with leukemia are cured with chemotherapy alone. If a transplant is needed, we wouldn’t use a child’s tainted cord blood,” Dr. Kurtzberg says.
#AutismAwarenessMonth Watch as Dr. Michael Chez discusses results of a recently published trial studying #cordblood as a potential treatment for autism and learn how CBR clients are helping to advance newborn stem cell science! pic.twitter.com/nOwBJGpy6A
The standard used to identify these cord blood banks was the number of cord blood and cord tissue units stored by each company. The purpose of this analysis is to compare pricing and services among the largest cord blood banks within the U.S., the most mature cord blood banking market in the world. These three industry giants also represent several of the largest cord blood banks worldwide.
 Ian Thornley, Mary Eapen, Lillian Sung, Stephanie J. Lee, Stella M. Davies and Steven Joffe, “Private cord blood banking: experiences and views of pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation physicians,” Pediatrics 123 (2009): 1011-1017.
Generally speaking, public cord blood banks collect, process and store your donated cord blood for free. The cord blood you donate to a public bank may be used for transplants or for research purposes, so you may not be able to access your own cord blood. View a list of public cord blood banks in North America.
Luckily for expectant parents, cord blood can be easily collected at the baby’s birth via the umbilical cord with no harm to the mother or baby. This is why pregnancy is a great time to plan to collect and bank a baby’s cord blood.
There are no hard numbers on a child’s risk of needing a stem-cell transplant: It’s anywhere between one in 1,000 and one in 200,000, according to studies cited by ACOG and the AAP. But private banks’ marketing materials often place the odds at one in 2,700 and note that these numbers don’t factor in its potential future use for diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal-cord injuries in adults. “Researchers are constantly discovering new treatments using stem cells,” says Gerald Maass, executive vice president of corporate development for Cryo-Cell, a private bank in Clearwater, Florida. Another major bank’s Web site claims incredible odds: “Should cord blood prove successful in treating heart disease, the lifetime probability of being diagnosed with a disease treatable by cord blood will increase from one in 100 to one in two.”
With the consent of the parents, blood can be collected from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby shortly after birth. This does not hurt the baby or the mother in any way, and it is blood that would otherwise be discarded as biological waste along with the placenta (another rich source of stem cells) after the birth.
If you’re looking to attain cord blood from a public bank, be aware that matched cord blood, as with bone marrow, can be difficult to obtain through a public cord blood bank. Once a match is ascertained, it may take valuable weeks, even months, to retrieve the match, and the cost of acquiring the cord blood from a public bank can be upwards of $40,000. When the newborn’s umbilical cord blood is banked privately, they can be retrieved quickly, and since the parents own the cord blood, banks can perform the retrieval free of charge. Learn more about public versus private cord blood banking here.
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Upon arrival at CBR’s laboratory, the kit is immediately checked in and inspected. Next, the cord blood unit is tested for sterility, viability, and cell count. In addition, the cord tissue is tested for sterility. CBR processes cord blood using the AutoXpress® Platform* (AXP®) – a fully automated, functionally closed stem cell processing technology. The AXP platform is an integral component of CBR’s proprietary CellAdvantage® system. CBR has the industry’s highest published average cell recovery rate of 99%.
Tissue typed and listed on the registry of the C.W. Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program, also called the Be The Match Registry®. (The registry is a listing of potential marrow donors and donated cord blood units. When a patient needs a transplant, the registry is searched to find a matching marrow donor or cord blood unit.)
Cord blood is used the same way that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to reconstitute bone marrow following radiation treatment for various blood cancers, and for various forms of anemia. Its efficacy is similar as well.
In fact, the shocking truth is that the majority of all cord blood stored in private banks may be unusable. Approximately 75 percent of the units donated to public banks are discarded or used in research because they don’t contain enough stem cells for transplants, says Mary Halet, manager of cord-blood operations for the Center for Cord Blood at the National Marrow Donor Program, a Minneapolis-based nonprofit organization that maintains the nation’s largest public supply of cord blood. Yet private banks store every unit they collect, which means that you might pay to store blood that won’t be usable if you need it years later.
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Public cord blood banking supports the health of the community. Public banks collect qualifying cord blood donations from healthy pregnancies and save them in case one of them will be the match to save the life of a patient who needs a stem cell transplant. In the United States our registry of donors is called Be The Match. Patients who have a rare genetic type are more likely to receive cord blood transplants. In order for parents to donate cord blood to a public bank, their baby must be born at a hospital that accepts donations. Public cord blood banking is highly recommended by both the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Medical Association (AMA).
As cord blood is inter-related to cord blood banking, it is often a catch-all term used for the various cells that are stored. It may be surprising for some parents to learn that stored cord blood contains little of what people think of as “blood,” as the red blood cells (RBCs) can actually be detrimental to a cord blood treatment. (As we’ll discuss later, one of the chief goals of cord blood processing is to greatly reduce the volume of red blood cells in any cord blood collection.)
“One of the wonderful things about cord blood is that unlike bone marrow, you don’t always need a perfect match in order for it to work,” says Dr. Kurtzberg, who performed the first unrelated cord-blood transplant in the U.S. And it was a public donation that ultimately saved Anthony Dones. Within a week of starting a search, the National Cord Blood Program, a public bank operated by the New York Blood Center, found a “close enough” match. Had the now-3-year-old been forced to rely on a bone-marrow match, he might still be waiting.
Carolinas Cord Blood Bank at Duke (CCBB) is headed by Dr. Joanne Kurtzberg. Expectant parents who have a child in need of therapy with cord blood, especially the new therapies in clinical trials at Duke, may be eligible for directed donation through CCBB.
CBR Clients: Did you know that when you refer a friend, and they preserve their baby’s stem cells with us, you receive a free year of cord blood storage? After your first referral, you start earning even more rewards. (Exclusions apply)
When you consider that public banks can only expect to ship 1-2% of their inventory for transplant, you can quickly understand why most public banks are struggling to make ends meet. That struggle means that fewer collection programs are staffed, and there are fewer opportunities for parents to donate to the public good. We said earlier that public banks only keep cord blood donations over a minimum of 900 million cells, but today most public banks have raised that threshold to 1.5 billion cells. The reason is that the largest units are the ones most likely to be used for transplants that bring income to the bank. Family cord blood banks do not need to impose volume thresholds because they have a profit margin on every unit banked.
A major limitation of cord blood transplantation is that the blood obtained from a single umbilical cord does not contain as many haematopoeitic stem cells as a bone marrow donation. Scientists believe this is the main reason that treating adult patients with cord blood is so difficult: adults are larger and need more HSCs than children. A transplant containing too few HSCs may fail or could lead to slow formation of new blood in the body in the early days after transplantation. This serious complication has been partially overcome by transplanting blood from two umbilical cords into larger children and adults. Results of clinical trials into double cord blood transplants (in place of bone marrow transplants) have shown the technique to be very successful. Some researchers have also tried to increase the total number of HSCs obtained from each umbilical cord by collecting additional blood from the placenta.
To prevent graft-versus-host disease and help ensure engraftment, the stem cells being transfused need to match the cells of the patient completely or to a certain degree (depending on what is being treated). Cord blood taken from a baby’s umbilical cord is always a perfect match for the baby. In addition, immediate family members are more likely to also be a match for the banked cord blood. Siblings have a 25 percent chance of being a perfect match and a 50 percent chance of being a partial match. Parents, who each provide half the markers used in matching, have a 100% chance of being a partial match. Even aunts, uncles, grandparents and other extended family members have a higher probability of being a match and could possibly benefit from the banked cord blood. Read more reasons why you should bank cord blood.
Cord blood contains mesenchymal stem cells but is much more abundant in hematopoietic stem cells. Cord tissue, on the other hand, contains some hematopoietic stem cells but is much richer in mesenchymal stem cells. Cord tissue, or Wharton’s jelly, is the protective layer that covers the umbilical cord’s vein and other vessels. Its MSCs can become a host of cells including those found in the nervous system, sensory organs, circulatory tissues, skin, bone, cartilage, and more. MSCs are currently undergoing clinical trials for sports injuries, heart and kidney disease, ALS, wound healing and autoimmune disease. As with cord blood, cord tissue is easily collected at the type of birth and holds great potential in regenerative medicine. Learn more about cord tissue banking here.
Preserving stem cells does not guarantee that the saved stem cells will be applicable for every situation. Ultimate use will be determined by a physician. Please note: Americord Registry’s activities are limited to collection of umbilical cord tissue from autologous donors. Americord Registry’s possession of a New York State license for such collection does not indicate approval or endorsement of possible future uses or future suitability of cells derived from umbilical cord tissue.
Yes, if you have any sick children who could benefit from umbilical cord blood. Public banks such as Carolinas Cord Bank at Duke University and private banks such as FamilyCord in Los Angeles offer programs in which the bank will assist with cord blood processing and storage if your baby has a biological sibling with certain diseases. FamilyCord will provide free cord blood storage for one year. See a list of banks with these programs at parentsguidecordblood.org/help.php.
Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute jointly oversee the Cord Blood Donation Program to provide hope to all patients in need of a life-saving stem cell transplant. For more information about the stem cell transplant program please visit The Stem Cell/Bone Marrow Transplant Program at Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center (DF/BWCC) web site.
What is cord blood and how is it collected? Throughout the last few years, cord blood banking has turned out to be one of the most viable and commendable medical advancements. Wondering what is cord blood? Well, this is the blood extracted from the baby’s umbilical…
If you are interested in donating cord blood to a public bank and do not have access to a hospital that accepts cord blood donations, you can contact a lab that offers a mail-in program. After you’ve passed the lab’s eligibility screening process, they’ll send you a kit that you can use to package and mail in your cord blood.2
Even if you don’t want to store the cord blood, highly consider donating the cord blood to local public banks. This cord blood can help patients that are on waiting lists with diseases such as leukemia.